Chapter1. Pandemics Of The Past. Does humanity perceive the experience of the past…?!

 

 

Pandemics Of The Past.

Does humanity perceive the experience of the past…?!

 

Chapter 1 History of pandemics

Introduction.

In one of the first articles about coronavirus, COVID-19 (Coronavirus COVID-19 and Mir 2020. Part1 of March 29, 2020 chok-chok. blog) I promised to ask questions related to the topic of coronovirus, which in my opinion have not yet received an answer from the world scientific community. COVID-19 research and ways to protect people from it in the scientific laboratories of the world were just beginning, gaining the necessary momentum, but clearly insufficient for the advanced 21st century, because reports from the battle sites of the virus and man around the world were and still are depressing and frightening. The ominous shadow of the 1918 pandemic, the so-called “Spaniard”, which claimed between 20 million and 50 million lives, immediately appeared on the public horizon. Coronovirus promised to put in the 21st century in the grave of no less than earthlings, according to the world reports of infected and dead. As they say in Odessa – ” We will see!”. Meanwhile, the world report on the dissemination and fatal outcome, despite some victories are not impressive OPTIMISM…

 

The first questions then were natural and related to the concept of an epidemic in General. In other words, the rapid transmission from person to person of pathogenic infections such as bacteria, “infectious sticks” and finally viruses constituted the concept of an epidemic. But each of them had its own character, a specific course, in a word, the course of the disease, and finally the initial elements-the Causes! All of them are known in history infectious diseases at different times of history appeared first in animals (mostly wild, not domestic) and only then, getting into the body of an individual began to spread extremely quickly in the human environment that surrounded this infected person. It is characteristic that many chami animals (insects) did not suffer from this infection in any way. But the infection itself was on its mind and was waiting for the donor animal, strengthened by the juices, to attack and hurt the king of nature-Man. So, pratically, all known epidemics of the past began their journey from animal to human. I start with this statement, because it remains the basic and most important difference between the world pandemics of the distant past and the 20th-century “Spanish” pandemic and the current 21st-century COVID-19. Yes, the first infection according to unapproved data occurred because a hungry farmer in the province of Wuhan tasted the meat of a dead bat in all probability back in November 2019. Neither the Chinese nor anyone else in the world (including Israel, where the author of these lines observes them in the night sky in tel Aviv on Rothschild Boulevard) did not destroy bats, or any other animals as potential sources of infection. It was clear (for some Reason…?!) that the animal world of the planet remained aloof from the pandemic of the 21st century and did not contribute to its spread in any way. On the contrary, animals themselves could get infected (and were infected, although isolated cases were recorded) from humans. There have been no reports of animal behavior studies related to coronovirus for a very long time. Veterinarians were silent and almost did not comment publicly on their attitude to the question of why animals are not susceptible to infection with the virus. Alas, there were enough worries in this world to begin to effectively deal with the person and the numerous issues of the course of the disease and characteristic features – for example, young people fell ill quite rarely, although this has been proven to be carriers of the infection! So it was clear from the very beginning (unsubstantiated!) that the planet’s fauna has no part in our fucking crowned pandemic. And she does not get infected and does not threaten to infect a person, so her immunity, the fauna of the Earth, is all right! Because our hero simply had no right not to get into the animal – and the human and animal have a lot of similar biological and genetic structures.

So” crimes ” from animals in contrast to the past in relation to the king of nature this time did not follow. And on this as they say thank you! Just recently, we, the human race, experienced “Bird flu”, “swine flu” and atypical fever.  Frightened slightly at first, and then when the peak of this infection has subsided by old habit safely forgotten…

Further, and this is our already learned and endured KNOWLEDGE-the nature of the so-called “infectious agent” of the famous and voracious pandemics of the past in terms of the number of dead earthlings by NATURE (chemical, genetic) is very different from the current pandemic of 2020 COVID-19 and the pandemic of 1918, the Spanish flu (even, in size). In the case of the plague, it is a “plague stick” from the family of bacteria, in our current and experienced case onn-line it is a virus. This difference is very significant! But then, if this virus was able to get into the body of one bat, what prevents it from doing so in the future…?! It turns out that the bat is a favorable environment for penetration and reproduction of the coronovirus. But there is still no case in the world (with the exception of one poor dog…perhaps with a weakened immune system) of infection of animals, including bats. Apparently, we should assume the following version of events…however, it is quite realistic. A virus from the coronovirus family being until 2019 (October-November?!) in General, quite harmless (except for two cases in 2002 and 2003[i]), not dangerous to humans gets into the body of a still living or already dead bat. Some environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, or constant cosmic radiation) make a favorable environment for the virus or bacteria to synthesize or mutate (persistent change).  Let’s not get distracted by clarifying the term (concept) Mutations or Mutagenesis, which were first introduced into scientific use by Hugo de Vries in 1901. Information about this is available in Wikipedia and know-it-all Google. Let’s just say … “mutate the universal (normal or regular) property of all forms of life from viruses and microorganisms to higher plants, animals and humans; it is the basis of hereditary variability in living nature” ( booksite.ru). So, our hero is a member of a generally respectable (with the exception of two cases) family of coronoviruses mutated. His name was COVID-19 now, but no one in the world knew HIM, knew him, or feared him, except this dead bat. Ahead loomed a shameful death from starvation in the womb (rather in the body, the respiratory system) of an already decaying bat or …a happy accident and a triumph of strength and will, more precisely, a triumphal tour around the world and simultaneously on many stage platforms with crowds hungry for close hugs and kisses with an impenetrable eye to the idol of the masses but also royalty, famous Hollywood actors, Prime Ministers, presidents, chancellors, famous rabbis and who just did not escape the deadly embrace of the new prima…! In the meantime our prima in the body of a dead mouse and the one that was already all the same threatened the newborn with starvation in the next week and a half at most. Viruses by their nature are parasites and live and eat and reproduce only at the expense of those in whom they managed to get into, to penetrate by deception as usual – there is no secret in this! Dead body of the mouseThe dead body of a mouse gradually rots and decomposes and along with it all those microorganisms die who earlier still in a living mouse rented cozy apartments there and prepared to thrive-but no, the owner is bent, died and together with him into oblivion by law must go all his tenants, including our hero! But fate took pity on the newly born crowned baby and gave her a chance to survive. The fate of the villain was already moving the feet of a hungry peasant in the direction of the deceased bat and a special crowned surprise in it. A Chinese peasant in the province of Wuhan quenched his hunger by eating mouse meat and at the same time gave life to a completely weakened and dying COVID-19. I think that the plot developed this way[ii]. Then it was this successfully mutated virus that got the opportunity to conquer and subdue the entire world of people, the entire planet, which it took advantage of. One single mutated virus and the fate of the world of people on earth is solved…?! Yes, exactly, but in combination with a lot of circumstances and coincidences in time of the acting participants of the drama. Here is a man and a peasant who returned not hungry but happy to his village. There are already other farmers of our hero his neighbors who went to the provincial capital to sell their crops and buy rice for the village. And then only by increasing and by the law of geometric progression. Then the greed and cynicism of some and the terrible death by suffocation of others. And then just a hidden life but with empty streets, cafes, restaurants, concert halls and stadiums without teams and spectators. Life in the conditions of emergency events with its new Charter and rules. (See YouTube:Chronicle of a stopped life). So let’s make an important conclusion:

 

– Except for one warlike bat that died in October-November 2019 and mutated in it one crowned person (the data is not accurate but assumed) in the triumphant tour of the latter around the world and simultaneously at the same time on thousands and thousands of stages – not one wild or pet or insect does not take part until this day(April 29, 2020) – on the contrary, some Pets pray for the health of their owners, seeing how their behavior has changed and unexpected always dreamed of prolonged communication in order not to remain hungry and be able to walk their owners further (so that they are healthy for us dogs).

 

– Further research shows that dogs also grab the virus but then successfully crush it with their immune system. Unexpectedly, domestic roosters show the best results of their organisms ‘ resistance to infection and easily suppress the army of the insidious foe. In Israel, they immediately reported that clever Israeli scientists are going to construct an effective serum on roosters. Let me remind you that the task of creating an effective serum or vaccine against COVID-19 has not yet been solved by anyone in the sublunar world.

Transmission of disease-causing infection from person to person occurred in various ways, but in General, the fastest transmission of infectious disease EN masse occurred by airborne droplets. A sick infectious person sneezed (sometimes involuntarily), coughed. A so-called aerosol cloud was formed in space. Both the space and the aerosol cloud itself were quite small in size, but it was enough that even in an open, not closed space, it was inhaled by another person who was in close contact with an infected person. The infection was also easily transmitted among people who neglected hygiene rules by means of infected household items or were kept for a long time in a closed, close room and a close cotact.

Pandemics

The famous bubonic plague pandemics in the middle ages decimated about half of the inhabitants of Europe. Smallpox epidemic – 300 million deaths. There were three major smallpox epidemics in the world – in 1775-1778 in North America, in 1780 in Australia, and in 1862 again in America. Cholera in the 19th century-20th century. Both in the case of plague and in the case of smallpox and cholera, there is one recurring but fatal similarity to the 20th-century pandemic (Spanish flu) and the current 21st-century pandemic of the COVID-19 Coronavirus. But first, the characteristics of these three worst pandemics in human history:

 

– the genetic (chemical) nature of the infectious agent (the main element of infection) – plague Bacillus. This is a bacterium (not a virus!)

 

Yersinia pestis, electronic microphotography

 

 

 

 

International scientific name: Yersinia pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) van Loghem 1944

 

 

 

 

Synonyms

 

 

according to the LPSN website[1]:

 

  • Bacterium pestis Lehmann and Neumann 1896

 

* Bacillus pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Migula 1900

 

  • Pasteurella pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Pestisella pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Dorofeev 1947 (in parentheses the names of scientists who studied this type of bacterium and the year of discovery)

* Justinian’s plague — the first recorded pandemic (world epidemic) of plague that occurred during the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, which covered the entire territory of the civilized world at that time and manifested itself as separate epidemics for two centuries (541-750). Thanks to the preserved Chronicles, scientists have established the estimated date of the” fire ” of the plague — 540-541 years; it is also assumed that the first source of the plague appeared in Ethiopia or In Egypt[1], after which, through trade channels (the Mediterranean), the disease reached Constantinople, and then from this center spread to the Northern, southern and Eastern parts of Byzantium, after which it spread to neighboring countries. Later, the epidemic swept through North Africa, all of Europe, Central and South Asia, and Arabia, but for all its time, it hardly touched East Asia.

 

In the Byzantine Empire

according to the LPSN website[1]:· Bacterium pestis Lehmann and Neumann 1896· Bacillus pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Migula 1900· Pasteurella pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Bergey et al. 1923· Pestisella pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Dorofeev 1947 (in parentheses the names of scientists who studied this type of bacterium and the year of discovery)·Justinian’s plague — the first recorded pandemic (world epidemic) of plague that occurred during the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, which covered the entire territory of the civilized world at that time and manifested itself as separate epidemics for two centuries (541-750). Thanks to the preserved Chronicles, scientists have established the estimated date of the” fire ” of the plague — 540-541 years; it is also assumed that the first source of the plague appeared in Ethiopia or In Egypt[1], after which, through trade channels (the Mediterranean), the disease reached Constantinople, and then from this center spread to the Northern, southern and Eastern parts of Byzantium, after which it spread to neighboring countries. Later, the epidemic swept through North Africa, all of Europe, Central and South Asia, and Arabia, but for all its time, it hardly touched East Asia.In the Byzantine Empire, the epidemic reached its peak around 544, when up to 5,000 people died daily in Constantinople, and on some days the death rate reached 10,000 [2].

Procopius of Caesarea, one of the most famous Byzantine historical writers, left such a record:There was no escape for a man from the plague, no matter where he lived — not on an island, not in a cave, not on a mountaintop… Many houses were deserted, and it happened that many of the dead, for lack of relatives or servants, lay for several days unburned. At this time, few people could be found working. Most of the people you met on the street were the ones who carried the bodies. All trade came to a standstill, all the artisans left the craft… [2]How this disease occurred, describes in his book “Church history» Evagrius Scholasticus, who had it himself:This ulcer was detected with different diseases: some it began with the head, — what eyes were bloodshot, face was swollen, then moved to her throat and covering him had taken a human life; others had a diarrhea; the third showed a tumor in the groin, and the extraordinary heat – and they’re on the other or third day died, not aware of being sick and feeling a fortress in the body; some fell into insanity and in this state gave up the Ghost; sometimes they jumped up on the body and struck people with death black ulcerous teals; some, having been subjected to the ulcer once or twice and recovered from it, then again subjected to it and died. The methods of borrowing the disease were so diverse that they could not be counted: some died from just turning and eating with the sick; others from just touching them; others-having been only in the house, and those-in the square; some, having escaped from the cities infected with the disease, themselves remained unharmed, but brought the disease with them to the healthy; and there were those who, although they lived with the sick and touched not only the infected but also the dead, remained completely free from the disease; others, having lost all their children or household, although they wanted to die and deliberately treated the sick, were not exposed to the infection, as it would have acted contrary to their desire. This ulcer, as it is said, continues to rage until this time 52 years, and has surpassed all previously former ulcers. Meanwhile, philostratus is also surprised that in his time the ulcer lasted 15 years[3].The disease took place mainly in bubonic and septic forms. None of the contemporaries of the epidemic mentioned such a conspicuous sign that speaks of pulmonary plague as hemoptysis[4]. The primary septic plague was particularly terrifying to contemporaries. Outwardly healthy people with it died on the same day, and before the appearance of any clinical signs.The victims of the plague in the East were about 66 million people (66 % of the population died Constantinople), in Europe, it killed up to 25 million people[1]. Most likely, this plague is registered in Irish sources as crom conaill (549-550 years): many saints and kings died from it (including the king of the Welsh Kingdom Gwynedd Mailgun and Saint Finnian of Clonard)[5]. Based on the description of the disease in Irish sources, a number of experts expressed doubts that in 549 and 664, the British Isles were hit by the same epidemic.In 2013, researchers concluded that the causative agent of the epidemic was the same plague Bacillus as the bubonic plague[6].Chronology of the pandemi542-Pelusium-the beginning of the epidemic[2].· 544-Constantinople.· 543, 565 years — Italy.* 546-Gaul.· 571 year — Liguria.· 590, 690 years-Rome.· 664, 672, 679 and 683 years-England.Second plague pandemic 1346-1353·

according to the LPSN website[1]:

 

  • Bacterium pestis Lehmann and Neumann 1896

 

* Bacillus pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Migula 1900

 

  • Pasteurella pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Bergey et al. 1923

 

  • Pestisella pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Dorofeev 1947 (in parentheses the names of scientists who studied this type of bacterium and the year of discovery)

 

* Justinian’s plague — the first recorded pandemic (world epidemic) of plague that occurred during the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, which covered the entire territory of the civilized world at that time and manifested itself as separate epidemics for two centuries (541-750). Thanks to the preserved Chronicles, scientists have established the estimated date of the” fire ” of the plague — 540-541 years; it is also assumed that the first source of the plague appeared in Ethiopia or In Egypt[1], after which, through trade channels (the Mediterranean), the disease reached Constantinople, and then from this center spread to the Northern, southern and Eastern parts of Byzantium, after which it spread to neighboring countries. Later, the epidemic swept through North Africa, all of Europe, Central and South Asia, and Arabia, but for all its time, it hardly touched East Asia.

 

In the Byzantine Empire, the epidemic reached its peak around 544, when up to 5,000 people died daily in Constantinople, and on some days the death rate reached 10,000 [2].

 

Procopius of Caesarea, one of the most famous Byzantine historical writers, left such a record:

 

 

 

 

There was no escape from the plague, no matter where he lived, on an island, in a cave, or on the top of a mountain… Many houses were deserted, and it happened that many of the dead, for lack of relatives or servants, lay for several days unburned. At this time, few people could be found working. Most of the people you met on the street were the ones who carried the bodies. All trade came to a standstill, all the artisans left the craft… [2]

 

How this disease proceeded, describes in his book “Church history» Evagrius Scholasticus, who had it himself:

 

 

This ulcer was detected with different diseases: some it began with the head, — what eyes were bloodshot, face was swollen, then moved to her throat and covering him had taken a human life; others had a diarrhea; the third showed a tumor in the groin, and the extraordinary heat – and they’re on the other or third day died, not aware of being sick and feeling a fortress in the body; others fell into insanity and in this state was expired; sometimes his body and struck the people with death black asonye boils; some, having been exposed to an ulcer once or twice and recovered from it, were then subjected to it again and died. The methods of borrowing the disease were so diverse that they could not be counted: some died from just turning and eating with the sick; others from just touching them; others-having been only in the house, and those-in the square; some, having escaped from the cities infected with the disease, themselves remained unharmed, but brought the disease with them to the healthy; and there were those who, although they lived with the sick and touched not only the infected but also the dead, remained completely free from the disease; others, having lost all their children or household, although they wanted to die and deliberately treated the sick, were not exposed to the infection, as it would have acted contrary to their desire. This ulcer, as it is said, continues to rage until this time 52 years, and has surpassed all previously former ulcers. Meanwhile, philostratus is also surprised that in his time the ulcer lasted 15 years[3].

 

 

The disease took place mainly in bubonic and septic forms. None of the contemporaries of the epidemic mentioned such a conspicuous sign that speaks of pulmonary plague as hemoptysis[4]. The primary septic plague was particularly terrifying to contemporaries. Outwardly healthy people with it died on the same day, and before the appearance of any clinical signs.

 

The victims of the plague in the East were about 66 million people (66 % of the population died Constantinople), in Europe, it killed up to 25 million people[1]. Most likely, this plague is registered in Irish sources as crom conaill (549-550 years): many saints and kings died from it (including the king of the Welsh Kingdom Gwynedd Mailgun and Saint Finnian of Clonard)[5]. Based on the description of the disease in Irish sources, a number of experts expressed doubts that in 549 and 664, the British Isles were hit by the same epidemic.

 

In 2013, researchers concluded that the causative agent of the epidemic was the same plague Bacillus as the bubonic plague[6].

 

Timeline of the pandemic

542-Pelusium-the beginning of the epidemic[2].

 

* 544 — Constantinople.

 

  • 543, 565 years — Italy.

 

* 546-Gaul.

 

  • 571 year — Liguria.

 

  • 590, 690 years-Rome.

 

  • 664, 672, 679, and 683 – England.

 

Second plague pandemic 1346-1353

 

 

The spread of the plague in Europe and the middle East in 1346-1353.

 

The black death or black plague is the second plague pandemic in history, which peaked in 1346-1353, and repeated outbreaks continued until the 19th century. Tens of millions of people became victims of the disease: according to various estimates, from 30 to 60% of the European population died from the disease[].

 

Most likely, the primary focus of the pandemic was located on the Northern coast of the Caspian sea, from where the disease spread to most of Eurasia and North Africa[1]. The infectious agent was the plague Bacillus Yersinia pestis, which was confirmed by genetic studies of the remains of victims of the pandemic[2]; however, some researchers put forward alternative theories about the nature of the black death [].

 

The ineffectiveness of medieval medicine and religious institutions in the fight against the plague contributed to the revival of pagan cults and superstitions, the persecution of potential “poisoners” and “distributors of plague poison”, as well as a surge of religious fanaticism and religious intolerance[]. The black death left a huge mark on the history of Europe, affecting the economy, psychology, culture, and even the genetic composition of the population[].

 

Titles

 

Most European contemporaries described the disease with the word pestilentia (from lat. — «epidemic») and its derivatives, sometimes in combination with the epithet “great”; in some languages, the expressions “great” or “sudden death”were used[3]. In Russian Chronicles, the bubonic form of the disease is called “iron plague”, and the pulmonary form is called “karkotoyu plague”.

 

The expression “black death” (Latin atra mors) was originally used in a figurative sense and was not associated with the symptoms of the plague[4][3][5]. For the first time a plague epidemic is described in this way in a tragedy Seneca’s “Oedipus”[6][K 1]. In relation to the epidemic of the XIV century, the expression “black death” (Latin mors nigra) is first found in a poem published in 1350 by the Parisian astrologer Simon Kovinsky.[3] [7] The Venetian poet Giacomo Ruffini, describing the outbreak of the plague in 1556, calls it “a black disease, a monster of darkness” (lat. atra lues, Monstra nigrantis).[8] Cardinal Francis Gasquet in 1908 suggested that the name “black death” was assigned to the epidemic of the XIV century at the instigation of the Dutch historian Johann Pontan [en], who claimed in 1631 that it was “called atra mors because of its symptoms”.[9][10][5] However, this name was not widely used until the 19th century, as it was used in popular history textbooks under the authorship of Elizabeth Penrose[en], and also in the monograph of the German physician Justus Hecker [de] “Der schwarze Tod im vierzehnten Jahrhundert” (with it. — “The black death in the fourteenth century”), who, with reference to Pontan, explained its origin by the blackening of the skin[11][12][13].

 

The name “Black death” is also attributed to the fact that the corpses of those who died in the epidemic of 1346-1351 quickly turned black and looked like according to the LPSN website[1]:

 

  • Bacterium pestis Lehmann and Neumann 1896

 

* Bacillus pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Migula 1900

 

  • Pasteurella pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Bergey et al. 1923

 

  • Pestisella pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Dorofeev 1947 (in parentheses the names of scientists who studied this type of bacterium and the year of discovery)

 

* Justinian’s plague — the first recorded pandemic (world epidemic) of plague that occurred during the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, which covered the entire territory of the civilized world at that time and manifested itself as separate epidemics for two centuries (541-750). Thanks to the preserved Chronicles, scientists have established the estimated date of the” fire ” of the plague — 540-541 years; it is also assumed that the first source of the plague appeared in Ethiopia or In Egypt[1], after which, through trade channels (the Mediterranean), the disease reached Constantinople, and then from this center spread to the Northern, southern and Eastern parts of Byzantium, after which it spread to neighboring countries. Later, the epidemic swept through North Africa, all of Europe, Central and South Asia, and Arabia, but for all its time, it hardly touched East Asia.

 

In the Byzantine Empire, the epidemic reached its peak around 544, when up to 5,000 people died daily in Constantinople, and on some days the death rate reached 10,000 [2].

 

Procopius of Caesarea, one of the most famous Byzantine historical writers, left such a record:

 

 

 

 

There was no escape from the plague, no matter where he lived, on an island, in a cave, or on the top of a mountain… Many houses were deserted, and it happened that many of the dead, for lack of relatives or servants, lay for several days unburned. At this time, few people could be found working. Most of the people you met on the street were the ones who carried the bodies. All trade came to a standstill, all the artisans left the craft… [2]

 

How this disease proceeded, describes in his book “Church history» Evagrius Scholasticus, who had it himself:

 

 

This ulcer was detected with different diseases: some it began with the head, — what eyes were bloodshot, face was swollen, then moved to her throat and covering him had taken a human life; others had a diarrhea; the third showed a tumor in the groin, and the extraordinary heat – and they’re on the other or third day died, not aware of being sick and feeling a fortress in the body; others fell into insanity and in this state was expired; sometimes his body and struck the people with death black asonye boils; some, having been exposed to an ulcer once or twice and recovered from it, were then subjected to it again and died. The methods of borrowing the disease were so diverse that they could not be counted: some died from just turning and eating with the sick; others from just touching them; others-having been only in the house, and those-in the square; some, having escaped from the cities infected with the disease, themselves remained unharmed, but brought the disease with them to the healthy; and there were those who, although they lived with the sick and touched not only the infected but also the dead, remained completely free from the disease; others, having lost all their children or household, although they wanted to die and deliberately treated the sick, were not exposed to the infection, as it would have acted contrary to their desire. This ulcer, as it is said, continues to rage until this time 52 years, and has surpassed all previously former ulcers. Meanwhile, philostratus is also surprised that in his time the ulcer lasted 15 years[3].

 

 

The disease took place mainly in bubonic and septic forms. None of the contemporaries of the epidemic mentioned such a conspicuous sign that speaks of pulmonary plague as hemoptysis[4]. The primary septic plague was particularly terrifying to contemporaries. Outwardly healthy people with it died on the same day, and before the appearance of any clinical signs.

 

The victims of the plague in the East were about 66 million people (66 % of the population died Constantinople), in Europe, it killed up to 25 million people[1]. Most likely, this plague is registered in Irish sources as crom conaill (549-550 years): many saints and kings died from it (including the king of the Welsh Kingdom Gwynedd Mailgun and Saint Finnian of Clonard)[5]. Based on the description of the disease in Irish sources, a number of experts expressed doubts that in 549 and 664, the British Isles were hit by the same epidemic.

 

In 2013, researchers concluded that the causative agent of the epidemic was the same plague Bacillus as the bubonic plague[6].

 

Timeline of the pandemic

542-Pelusium-the beginning of the epidemic[2].

 

* 544 — Constantinople.

 

  • 543, 565 years — Italy.

 

* 546-Gaul.

 

  • 571 year — Liguria.

 

  • 590, 690 years-Rome.

 

  • 664, 672, 679, and 683 – England.

 

Second plague pandemic 1346-1353

 

 

The spread of the plague in Europe and the middle East in 1346-1353.

 

The black death or black plague is the second plague pandemic in history, which peaked in 1346-1353, and repeated outbreaks continued until the 19th century. Tens of millions of people became victims of the disease: according to various estimates, from 30 to 60% of the European population died from the disease[].

 

Most likely, the primary focus of the pandemic was located on the Northern coast of the Caspian sea, from where the disease spread to most of Eurasia and North Africa[1]. The infectious agent was the plague Bacillus Yersinia pestis, which was confirmed by genetic studies of the remains of victims of the pandemic[2]; however, some researchers put forward alternative theories about the nature of the black death [].

 

The ineffectiveness of medieval medicine and religious institutions in the fight against the plague contributed to the revival of pagan cults and superstitions, the persecution of potential “poisoners” and “distributors of plague poison”, as well as a surge of religious fanaticism and religious intolerance[]. The black death left a huge mark on the history of Europe, affecting the economy, psychology, culture, and even the genetic composition of the population[].

 

Titles

 

Most European contemporaries described the disease with the word pestilentia (from lat. — «epidemic») and its derivatives, sometimes in combination with the epithet “great”; in some languages, the expressions “great” or “sudden death”were used[3]. In Russian Chronicles, the bubonic form of the disease is called “iron plague”, and the pulmonary form is called “karkotoyu plague”.

 

The expression “black death” (Latin atra mors) was originally used in a figurative sense and was not associated with the symptoms of the plague[4][3][5]. For the first time a plague epidemic is described in this way in a tragedy Seneca’s “Oedipus”[6][K 1]. In relation to the epidemic of the XIV century, the expression “black death” (Latin mors nigra) is first found in a poem published in 1350 by the Parisian astrologer Simon Kovinsky.[3] [7] The Venetian poet Giacomo Ruffini, describing the outbreak of the plague in 1556, calls it “a black disease, a monster of darkness” (lat. atra lues, Monstra nigrantis).[8] Cardinal Francis Gasquet in 1908 suggested that the name “black death” was assigned to the epidemic of the XIV century at the instigation of the Dutch historian Johann Pontan [en], who claimed in 1631 that it was “called atra mors because of its symptoms”.[9][10][5] However, this name was not widely used until the 19th century, as it was used in popular history textbooks under the authorship of Elizabeth Penrose[en], and also in the monograph of the German physician Justus Hecker [de] “Der schwarze Tod im vierzehnten Jahrhundert” (with it. — “The black death in the fourteenth century”), who, with reference to Pontan, explained its origin by the blackening of the skin[11][12][13].

 

The name “Black death” is also attributed to the fact that the corpses of those who died in the epidemic of 1346-1351 quickly turned black and looked likeaccording to the LPSN website[1]:

 

  • Bacterium pestis Lehmann and Neumann 1896

 

* Bacillus pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Migula 1900

 

  • Pasteurella pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Bergey et al. 1923

 

  • Pestisella pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Dorofeev 1947 (in parentheses the names of scientists who studied this type of bacterium and the year of discovery)

 

* Justinian’s plague — the first recorded pandemic (world epidemic) of plague that occurred during the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, which covered the entire territory of the civilized world at that time and manifested itself as separate epidemics for two centuries (541-750). Thanks to the preserved Chronicles, scientists have established the estimated date of the” fire ” of the plague — 540-541 years; it is also assumed that the first source of the plague appeared in Ethiopia or In Egypt[1], after which, through trade channels (the Mediterranean), the disease reached Constantinople, and then from this center spread to the Northern, southern and Eastern parts of Byzantium, after which it spread to neighboring countries. Later, the epidemic swept through North Africa, all of Europe, Central and South Asia, and Arabia, but for all its time, it hardly touched East Asia.

 

In the Byzantine Empire, the epidemic reached its peak around 544, when up to 5,000 people died daily in Constantinople, and on some days the death rate reached 10,000 [2].

 

Procopius of Caesarea, one of the most famous Byzantine historical writers, left such a record:

 

 

 

 

There was no escape from the plague, no matter where he lived, on an island, in a cave, or on the top of a mountain… Many houses were deserted, and it happened that many of the dead, for lack of relatives or servants, lay for several days unburned. At this time, few people could be found working. Most of the people you met on the street were the ones who carried the bodies. All trade came to a standstill, all the artisans left the craft… [2]

 

How this disease proceeded, describes in his book “Church history» Evagrius Scholasticus, who had it himself:

 

 

This ulcer was detected with different diseases: some it began with the head, — what eyes were bloodshot, face was swollen, then moved to her throat and covering him had taken a human life; others had a diarrhea; the third showed a tumor in the groin, and the extraordinary heat – and they’re on the other or third day died, not aware of being sick and feeling a fortress in the body; others fell into insanity and in this state was expired; sometimes his body and struck the people with death black asonye boils; some, having been exposed to an ulcer once or twice and recovered from it, were then subjected to it again and died. The methods of borrowing the disease were so diverse that they could not be counted: some died from just turning and eating with the sick; others from just touching them; others-having been only in the house, and those-in the square; some, having escaped from the cities infected with the disease, themselves remained unharmed, but brought the disease with them to the healthy; and there were those who, although they lived with the sick and touched not only the infected but also the dead, remained completely free from the disease; others, having lost all their children or household, although they wanted to die and deliberately treated the sick, were not exposed to the infection, as it would have acted contrary to their desire. This ulcer, as it is said, continues to rage until this time 52 years, and has surpassed all previously former ulcers. Meanwhile, philostratus is also surprised that in his time the ulcer lasted 15 years[3].

 

 

The disease took place mainly in bubonic and septic forms. None of the contemporaries of the epidemic mentioned such a conspicuous sign that speaks of pulmonary plague as hemoptysis[4]. The primary septic plague was particularly terrifying to contemporaries. Outwardly healthy people with it died on the same day, and before the appearance of any clinical signs.

 

The victims of the plague in the East were about 66 million people (66 % of the population died Constantinople), in Europe, it killed up to 25 million people[1]. Most likely, this plague is registered in Irish sources as crom conaill (549-550 years): many saints and kings died from it (including the king of the Welsh Kingdom Gwynedd Mailgun and Saint Finnian of Clonard)[5]. Based on the description of the disease in Irish sources, a number of experts expressed doubts that in 549 and 664, the British Isles were hit by the same epidemic.

 

In 2013, researchers concluded that the causative agent of the epidemic was the same plague Bacillus as the bubonic plague[6].

 

Timeline of the pandemic

542-Pelusium-the beginning of the epidemic[2].

 

* 544 — Constantinople.

 

  • 543, 565 years — Italy.

 

* 546-Gaul.

 

  • 571 year — Liguria.

 

  • 590, 690 years-Rome.

 

  • 664, 672, 679, and 683 – England.

 

Second plague pandemic 1346-1353

 

 

The spread of the plague in Europe and the middle East in 1346-1353.

 

The black death or black plague is the second plague pandemic in history, which peaked in 1346-1353, and repeated outbreaks continued until the 19th century. Tens of millions of people became victims of the disease: according to various estimates, from 30 to 60% of the European population died from the disease[].

 

Most likely, the primary focus of the pandemic was located on the Northern coast of the Caspian sea, from where the disease spread to most of Eurasia and North Africa[1]. The infectious agent was the plague Bacillus Yersinia pestis, which was confirmed by genetic studies of the remains of victims of the pandemic[2]; however, some researchers put forward alternative theories about the nature of the black death [].

 

The ineffectiveness of medieval medicine and religious institutions in the fight against the plague contributed to the revival of pagan cults and superstitions, the persecution of potential “poisoners” and “distributors of plague poison”, as well as a surge of religious fanaticism and religious intolerance[]. The black death left a huge mark on the history of Europe, affecting the economy, psychology, culture, and even the genetic composition of the population[].

 

Titles

 

Most European contemporaries described the disease with the word pestilentia (from lat. — «epidemic») and its derivatives, sometimes in combination with the epithet “great”; in some languages, the expressions “great” or “sudden death”were used[3]. In Russian Chronicles, the bubonic form of the disease is called “iron plague”, and the pulmonary form is called “karkotoyu plague”.

 

The expression “black death” (Latin atra mors) was originally used in a figurative sense and was not associated with the symptoms of the plague[4][3][5]. For the first time a plague epidemic is described in this way in a tragedy Seneca’s “Oedipus”[6][K 1]. In relation to the epidemic of the XIV century, the expression “black death” (Latin mors nigra) is first found in a poem published in 1350 by the Parisian astrologer Simon Kovinsky.[3] [7] The Venetian poet Giacomo Ruffini, describing the outbreak of the plague in 1556, calls it “a black disease, a monster of darkness” (lat. atra lues, Monstra nigrantis).[8] Cardinal Francis Gasquet in 1908 suggested that the name “black death” was assigned to the epidemic of the XIV century at the instigation of the Dutch historian Johann Pontan [en], who claimed in 1631 that it was “called atra mors because of its symptoms”.[9][10][5] However, this name was not widely used until the 19th century, as it was used in popular history textbooks under the authorship of Elizabeth Penrose[en], and also in the monograph of the German physician Justus Hecker [de] “Der schwarze Tod im vierzehnten Jahrhundert” (with it. — “The black death in the fourteenth century”), who, with reference to Pontan, explained its origin by the blackening of the skin[11][12][13].

 

The name “Black death” is also attributed to the fact that the corpses of those who died in the epidemic of 1346-1351 quickly turned black and looked like Causes of the spread of plague and high mortality

Climate factor

 

The XIV century was a time of global cooling, which replaced the warm and humid small climate optimum of the VIII-XIII centuries. Climate change in Eurasia was particularly dramatic. The reasons that caused this phenomenon are not exactly established yet, but most often they include reduced solar activity, which is assumed to have reached a minimum at the end of the XVII century, as well as complex interactions between the atmospheric circulation and the Gulf stream in the North Atlantic[15].

 

Like the Justinian plague eight centuries earlier, the Black death was preceded by numerous cataclysms. Documents and Chronicles of that time brought information about the disastrous drought and subsequent famine in Central China, invasion of a locust in Henan province, and then the hurricanes and heavy rains that swept in 1333 Khanbalik (now Beijing). All this, according to scientists, led to a large-scale migration of small rodents (mice, rats, and others) closer to human habitats, as well as to their large crowding, which eventually caused the spread of the epidemic[16].

 

The climate of Europe became not only cold, but also unstable; periods of high humidity alternated with drought, and the vegetative period of plants was reduced. If the years 1300-1309 in Europe were warm and excessively dry, then in 1312-1322 the weather became cold and wet, heavy rains from 1314 onwards destroyed the crop, which led to the great famine of 1315-1317[17][18]. Lack of food in Europe was felt until 1325. Constant malnutrition, which led to a General weakening of the immune system, inevitably resulted in epidemics, in Europe raging pellagra and xerophthalmia[18]. Natural smallpox ,which “woke up” at the end of the XII century after a long absence, reached a peak of distribution shortly before the arrival of the plague. During this period, smallpox epidemics spread Lombardy, Holland, France, and Germany. To smallpox was added leprosy, the spread of which took such a catastrophic scale that the Church was forced to allocate special shelters for the sick (leper colonies), which received the Italian name lazaretti[19]. All this, in addition to high mortality, led to a General decrease in the immunity of the surviving population, which soon fell victim to the plague.

 

Socio-economic factor

 

In addition to environmental considerations, the spread of In addition to environmental factors, a number of socio-economic factors contributed to the spread of the plague. To epidemics and famines were added military disasters: in France, a war raged, later called Centenary. In Italy, the Guelphs and Ghibellines continued to feud among themselves, and in Spain there were internal conflicts and civil wars, over part of the The Mongol-Tatar yoke was established in Eastern Europe. Vagrancy, poverty and a large number of refugees from war-torn areas, the movement of huge armies and brisk trade are considered by researchers to be important factors that contributed to the rapid spread of the pandemic[20]. The necessary condition for maintaining the epidemic is a sufficiently high population density. In the walled cities, which also sheltered the population of the suburbs during the sieges, the population density was much higher than the minimum required to maintain the epidemic. The crowding of people who are often forced to live in the same room or, at best, in the same house, with their complete ignorance of the rules of disease prevention, has also been a significant factor in maintaining the pandemic[21].

 

Parasitising insects on humans, apparently, was also a common phenomenon, at least among the common people: so, from the interrogations of inquisitors who fought against the Cathar heresy among the Pyrenean highlanders of the XIII-XIV centuries, much is known about their life: the peasants lived very crowded, slept together on one large bed, ate with the whole family from common dishes, and as a sign of tenderness and affection, crushed each other’s lice, to completely destroy which was unrealistic for them[22].

 

The role was undoubtedly played by a huge number of rats (obviously enough for the formation of synanthropic foci of the plague), as well as such close contact with them that in one of the “plague writings” of that time (Lékařské knížky Kršištjana from Prachatits), a special recipe is given for the case “if someone’s face is pinched or wetted by a rat”[23].

 

As for personal hygiene, the situation was complicated by the fact that since In the early middle Ages, especially in the monastic environment, there was a widespread practice called alousia in Latin. Alousia was a deliberate rejection of the pleasures of life and the punishment of the sinful body by depriving it of the most necessary things, part of which was washing. In fact, this meant a commitment to particularly long fasts and prayers, as well as a long-term, and sometimes lifelong, refusal to submerge in water — although it should be noted that in times of During the high middle Ages, the number of followers gradually began to decrease. According to the same views, taking care of the body was considered sinful, and excessive washing and the associated contemplation of one’s own naked body — leading to temptation. “Healthy physically and especially young in age should wash as little as possible”[the source is not specified 711 days], – warned of the danger Saint Benedict. Saint Agnes[who?], according to some versions, during her adult life, she did not wash a single time[24].

 

In addition, the sanitary condition of the cities, by today’s standards, was appalling. The narrow streets were littered with garbage, which was thrown on the pavement directly from the houses. When it began to interfere with traffic, the king or local Seigneur ordered it removed, cleanliness was maintained for several days, after which everything began again[25]. Slops were often poured directly out of Windows into a ditch dug along the street, and the statutes of some cities (for example, Paris[source not specified 298 days]) specifically required owners to warn passers-by three times by shouting ” Beware!”. Blood from the slaughterhouses flowed into the same ditch, and all this then ended up in the nearest river, from which water was taken for drinking and cooking[source not specified 711 days].

 

Conclusions

Conclusions

So, dear reader, your attention is presented with descriptions and eyewitness accounts of 2 historical pandemics of the plague. Justinian’s plague — the first recorded pandemic (world epidemic) of plague that occurred during the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, which covered the entire territory of the civilized world at that time and manifested itself as separate epidemics for two centuries (541-750).

The black death or black plague is the second plague pandemic in history, which peaked in 1346-1353, and repeated outbreaks continued until the 19th century. Tens of millions of people became victims of the disease: according to various estimates, from 30 to 60% of the European population died from the disease[⇨].

We, the people of the 21st century, are primarily interested in these long-standing disasters, terrible epidemics of the past – and whether it is possible to comprehend in them a positive experience that can be learned and which can be useful to us people of the 21st century today in the fight against the COVID-19 coronovirus

TODAY?!?! Forewarned (by KNOWLEDGE!) means armed. Yes, absolutely.

The main similarity of those distant historical pandemics pandemic of the twentieth century, influenza “Spanish flu” pandemic and the XX1-St century COVID-19 is intensive moving around the globe large numbers of people PRIMARILY in a limited, enclosed space (crowding) with abundant close contacts between them. For any type of epidemic, this is an unexpected but expensive gift. There are places where it is easy to taste human flesh and further increase your geographical area and the number of infected (otherwise unwitting agents of infection)so that this epidemic quickly and easily turned into a global Pandemic.
The necessary condition for maintaining the epidemic is a sufficiently high population density. The crowding of people who are often forced to live in the same room or, at best, in the same house, with their complete ignorance of the rules of disease prevention, has also been a significant factor in maintaining the pandemic[21]. This is from the description of the plague in the middle Ages 1346, 800 years ago from our Today with the hero of our time COVID-19. You ask the viewer (reader) – and where is the SIMILARITY HERE…?! Sorry-FULL SIMILARITY! Except for the phrase about ignorance about prevention rules. Earthlings of the 21st century it is involuntary and is only fatal ignorance of what awaits them in the near future that are waiting for their state where they fly the planes after a rest in a heavenly corner of the Earth, enjoy fresh sea air saturated with iodine useful on sea cruise liner, look out the window of the comfortable but narrow train car, riding in confined capsules modern buses. If they knew what was waiting for them in the very near future, they would have figured out how to arrange themselves in a cramped airplane capsule in a staggered order with handkerchiefs or scarves wrapped around their mouths… Their ignorance is forced … this is their human destiny, from which you can not escape as well as not escape from human greed. Another flight of the plane and another flight … it’s profit!!! And this is already at a time when the number of infected in China goes to thousands and in Europe is still 10 – Ki, a completely different dimension and not in one European state, but in different even remote from each other. And the squeaky (yet) bell of the world’s Trouble is getting louder and louder. But do not listen to him responsible for the health of the planet, the highest ranks of who! Reasonable, reasonable people of Europe comparing the scale of the disaster in China, the experience of 1918, and most importantly the degree of globalization of the modern world-ask each other – is it not time to declare an alarm… But their weak voices are drowned out by the roar of the plebs of Europe = ” …we have the UN and who for this, who live on our taxes and national contributions – they will say and declare and then we will see what to do…! Tea there are not stupid suicide is not sitting!»

Alas, (the reader!) the top of the European bureaucracy of the world health organization at the UN was much more dangerous for the fate of the world … We ordinary people do not know the realities of the two fatal first months of the new year 2020 for Europe and America (January and February) around and within who. Perhaps the events there were dramatic and resembled the struggle of good and evil, knowledge and ignorance, incompetence and banal fear of Big world business. Who as well as the two-faced Janus had two halves of the face dark (evil-incompetence-fear of big business revenge) and light – professionals, honest and brave people. To step casually on the interests of Big business, even with very good reasons, meant only one thing – to incur the displeasure and anger of the Owners of Big Business on yourself and on your very well – arranged and well-off life. EU Euro-bureaucrats (not only who) have shown in our days, that is, today in the days of severe trials by a terrible pestilence-that they can be unpredictably dangerous creatures – because, in their hands, the rod of power and on them, only on them is the normal course and effectiveness of the state machine based … Brexit did not grow up from scratch… Yes, reader, I blame not only the who, but also the national governments of Europe and the UK for the irreversible losses yesterday and today that would be immeasurably less if at least 2-3 EU countries, even before the announcement of the world pandemic on March 11, simply closed air and land borders, stopped urgently crazy tourism traffic, otherwise the ban (or restriction) on air and other communication, introduced the status of quarantine for all citizens and people who arrived from abroad, began to quickly establish the production of protective equipment (masks and gloves) increased the availability of ventilators, put on special account of citizens at risk (asthma, diabetes) we would approve a number of organizational measures in relation to nursing homes and that is also important as experience has shown (but no less clearly says ordinary everyday logic…) production of basic necessities and more …(this is incomprehensible in the 21st century… God, how stupid humanity is…) priority over All other citizens of the state is to supply the country’s medical staff with the most effective means of protection… All this was not necessary for the Europeans to invent – before their eyes was an example of a huge densely populated country of the people’s Republic of China all through December and beyond until the first victory of mankind in Wuhan. But … but all this began to be done in one way or another with haste and efficiency by the national governments of Europe only after March 11, 2020, after 70 days of the “orange alarm” that sounded to the whole world in China at the end of December! History, of course, will present its own account in due time to All on whom the lives of European citizens depended. But even now it is clear that all is not well in the “Danish Kingdom of planet Earth”. And first of all, the stupid and unjustified greed and cynicism of world Capitalism in the 21st century. Profit and Profit again!!! At all costs, non-stop work in online mode and the intensification of efforts to extract profit. And no harmful and disastrous for the essence of capitalism intilligentskih reflections and questions “What is further …and in the name of what…?!»

I remember the immortal Lenin expression he said during the NEP period: “the Capitalists themselves will sell us the rope on which we will hang them.“ We are talking about the unprincipled greed of capitalism (as a distinctive and characteristic feature in General). In this historical period of time, we are not even talking about the Big world capitalism as a whole, but about one of its not the most noticeable and important segments – world tourism and aviation companies, cruise liners, long-distance trains and other transport services connected not with cargo but with the passenger flow. Without limiting even partially tourist and business logistics All these companies will lose almost Everything after March 11! Governments of almost all countries of the world were forced to immediately cancel all passenger flights and close their borders. Greed is stupid and unjustified – then in January and February, the profit is a pittance compared to what will happen after March 11, when the governments of the world will simply collapse to 0 the economy of this segment of the world economy and the losses to this day are already billions of dollars… But the main thing is that without stopping air services or significantly limiting them in those regions of the world, about which it was already known that they pose an epidemiological danger, these companies, whether on their own initiative or under pressure from their national governments, simply postponed the day – when humanity somehow manages to cope with the invisible enemy, the growth of new infected people will stop in most of its territory and then the world economy will begin to recover and previously closed businesses will resume their work, including air services. Believe me, viewers and readers, every flight in January and February 2020 from Southeast Asia, where Europeans and Americans seasonally rest on warm seas, has kept this future (so far) DAY of return of the WORLD of PEOPLE to the peaceful and habitual life of mankind of the 21st century…

[i] Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), also known in the media as atypical pneumonia — is a respiratory viral disease caused by the SARS-CoV coronavirus (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus)[3], the first case of which was reported in November 2002 in southern China[4]. The disease is characterized by viral pneumonia, rapidly progressing to respiratory failure[5].

The infection spread to neighboring Hong Kong and Vietnam within 2 months, and to other countries and continents at the end of February 2003 and beyond.[6] Cases were detected in 29 countries, with a total of 8,098 cases reported, of which 774 were fatal. The largest number of cases were recorded in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore and Canada. The last case of SARS was reported in July 2003 in Taiwan[4]. The epidemic was stopped by measures to control the spread of infection[7].

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